I am sure that many readers of the Simon Necronomicon are well aware of the Watcher, also known as Bandar. In the writings of Simon (Gates of the Necronomicon) and Warlock Asylum (Atlantean Necronomicon), the Watcher is often compared to ones’ inner self, the kundalini force, and etc. We have quite a few articles appearing on this page that also go into defining just a few of the things that the Watcher represents. However, recently we receive the above question from one of our readers. Is there any historical proof that the people of ancient Mesopotamia actually invoke a Watcher in their rites? The answer is yes. Mow let us examine the evidence for all of this.

We are given a very strong clue, as to how the ancient Mesopotamians viewed the Watcher when we look at the Simon Necronomicon’s Exorcism of the Crown of Anu. The Crown of Anu Exorcism, as it appears in the Simon Necronomicon, states:

“I have put the Starry Crown of Heaven, the potent Disk of ANU on my head..That a kindly Spirit and a kindly Watcher..Like the God that hath made me..May stand at my head always..To life me to favor with the Elder Gods”

In the passage cited above, we see a pair of protective spirits, one being the Watcher and the other a Spirit. If we can find the original text, as it appears in Mesopotamian history then we can determine the identity of the Watcher and the Spirit cited in the passage above. In a book that appears in the Simon Necronomicon’s bibliography, entitled Semitic Magic: Its Origin and Development by R.C. Thompson, published in 1908, we find the following on page 45:

“The sedu, however, to return to its Assyrian phase, was also looked upon as a beneficent spirit, thus approximating to the idea of guardian angels. With the lamassu, which appears always as a kindly spirit, it is appealed to at the end of invocations, both being frequently invoked to be present after the evil spirit has been cast out. The exorciser, for instance, will ban the evil spirit thus:

” May the god Dubsag-Unug-ki, the patron of Kullabi,..For my life and health follow after me ;..A kindly Guardian {sedu) marcheth on my right,.A kindly Spirit {lamassu) marcheth on my left.”

” When I draw near unto the sick man,..When I lay my hand on the head of the sick man,..May a kindly Guardian {sedu), a kindly Spirit {lamassu) stand at my side.”

According to the information cited above, the Watcher was known in ancient Mesopotamian spirituality as a Sedu, and the kindly Spirit, was known as a Lamassu. We can confirm this by comparing some of the text found in the Simon Necronomicon with ancient Mesopotamian history. In the First Testimony of the Mad Arab, we read:

“The Watcher is a Race sent by the Elder Ones. It keeps vigil while one sleeps, provided the appropriate ritual and sacrifice has been performed,: else, if called, it will turn upon you.”

The Mad Arab’s words seem to indicate that the “Watcher” is a neutral force and can work in either a benevolent or malevolent manner. Did the ancient Mesopotamians have the same view of the Sedu? Interestingly, we find the work of J.P. Brown’s; Israel and Hellas-Volume 3, page 230, describes the Sedu in the same manner as the Mad Arab comments about the Watcher. We read:

“Loan from the Akkadian sedu….”a spirit representing the vital force” of a man or temple, propitious, or malevolent.”

Here we see that the Sedu could be either good or malevolent, which is similar to the description given by the Mad arab concerning the Watcher. The Mad Arab also notes that the “Watcher is a Race sent by the Elder Gods.” In the book, Images and Gender by Silvia Schroer, we find the following information on page 200:

“The sedu, like the lamassu, is a propitious protective spirit who intercedes with high deities on behalf of individual mortals.”


 We also find that the Sedu (Watcher) compare greatly to Cherub angels. Notice what is found in a Wikipedia article entitled Cherub. Which can be accessed at the following link

“The term cherubim is cognate with the Assyrian term karabu, Akkadian term kuribu, and Babylonian term karabu; the Assyrian term means ‘great, mighty’, but the Akkadian and Babylonian cognates mean ‘propitious, blessed’.[3][4] In some regions the Assyro-Babylonian term came to refer in particular to spirits which served the gods, in particular to the shedu (human-headed winged bulls);[5] the Assyrians sometimes referred to these as kirubu, a term grammatically related to karabu.[3] They were originally a version of the shedu, protective deities sometimes found as pairs of colossal statues either side of objects to be protected, such as doorways.[6][7]

Some of this information may seem contradictory to information that has appeared in posts. For example, Warlock Asylum has often compared the Watcher to Kutulu, as seen in this article Can we find a similar thought in ancient Mesopotamian spirituality? Well, one thing that we should consider, which is also cited in some of the references used in this article, is that the Sedu can be either beneficent or malevolent, like any other deity. On page 43, of the previous cited work Semitic Magic, we read:

“Two others are mentioned in the cuneiform magical texts, the sedu and lamassu. The former may be the name for either a guardian deity or an evil spirit. As a power of evil it is found in an invocation beginning “Spirit (sedu) which minisheth heaven and earth, which minisheth the land; spirit which minisheth the land, of giant strength, and giant tread.”

The information cited above does indicate some aspects of how the Sedu (Watcher) may be related to Kutulu, as put forth by Warlock Asylum in the Atlantean Necronomicon. However, it would be good to compare some other sources as well. As recorded in Sayce’s Hibbert Lectures 1887 by A. H. Sayce, wherein we find the Assyrian magical texts taken from the palace of Assur-bani-pal, the king of legions, king of Assyria, we read:

1. “The reptiles that creep round and round, the evil gods are they 2. The warrior spirits (sedu) that spare not, who were created in the cloudy vault of heaven, are they.  3. They are they who produce disease. 4. Enlarging (their) evil heads, …. to lay the yoke (upon it they march) 5. Among those seven, the first is a scorpion of rain, 6. The second is a monster (whose) mouth (no) one (can bridle 7. The third is the lightning-flash, the strong son of …8. The fourth is a serpent ….9. The fifth is a watch-dog which (rages) against (his foes). 10. The sixth is a rushing (tempest) which to god and king (submits not) 11. The seventh, like a messenger, is the evil wind which (Ami made   12. Those seven are the messengers of Anu their king.”

This information compares greatly to what we find in the writings of Warlock Asylum concerning Kutulu’s identity as the Watcher:

“The URILIA Text describes KUTULU as “the Fire of The Earth.” This is very interesting since the MAKLU Text mentions that ‘mighty KUTULU’ fears Girra, the Lord of Flames. We also learn in the URILIA Text that when KUTULU shakes ENKI is said to be ‘afraid.’  Therefore, KUTULU is a deity that fears the Fire God, but can also instill fear in ENKI when he moves. With this information when can now determine who or what KUTULU really is.

In the famous Babylonian legend The War of the Seven Wicked Spirits against the Moon, we learn about how the “rebellious genii,” who were once employed by the heavenly deities, caused great trouble in raging war against the Moon god and Hea (ENKI) appeared to be afraid, as none of the celestial forces could diminish their power. Babylonian texts mention the Fire-God, Gibil, as being most effective against the genii. These “rebellious genii” are the seven heads of the dragon. Kenneth Grant mentions this in his book the Nightside of Eden, on page 60-61 we read:

“In the Sumerian phase of mythology, the seven heads of the devouring dragon were represented as follows:

The first by a Scorpion. The second by a Whrling Cross ofr Thunderbolt. The third by a Leopard or Hyena. The fourth by a Serpent. The fifth by a Raging Lion. The sixth by a Rebellious Giant. The seventh by Typhon, Angel of the Fatal Wind.”

From all the information that we have reviewed thus far, it is fair to say that the Sedu is the Watcher and was invoked in ancient Mesopotamian spirituality. As Gustav Davidson states in A Dictionary of Angels on page 264:

“the sedim are guardian spirits, invoked in the exorcism of evil spirits.”

Before we continue further into our discussion, I thought it would be good to review an observation pertaining to our subject made by Paul-Alain Beaulieu, in a work entitled. The Pantheon of Uruk During the Neo-Babylonian Period. Page 137 reads:

“The sedu and lamassu spirits are portrayed as protectors of the individual worshipper. In some prayers the supplicant bewails the loss of his subsequent ill fortune that befell him. In other he entreats the deity in order to be accompanied by these spirits in his journey through life. Some sources, on the other hand, portray the sedu and lamassu as protective spirits which accompany a goddess. In the Old Babylonian hymn to Istar……the sedu and lamassu spirits appears favorably at the casting of her eyes.”

In the above quote, we can see that the sedu and lamassu spirits  were employed by Ishtar. Warlock Asylum makes the following observation in this article:

The Dagger is an extension of the magician’s will. The Simon Necronomicon instructs the Initiate to make this dagger out of copper. Copper was a symbol for blood in Sumeria. It is here that we see a correlation between ISHTAR and LAMASHTU. LAMASHTU was sometimes referred to as the “right hand of ISHTAR.” The “right hand” is the hand that the Initiate uses to direct their will.”

Warlock Asylum’s words  remind us that Lamashtu, like the Lamassu and Sedu were used by the Goddess Ishtar. Carol Rose, in the book , Giants, Monsters, and Dragons; An Encyclopedia of Folklore, page 220:

“The Lamassu were regarded as female — their male counterparts were called Sedu or Shedu”

Ariel Golan in the book, Myth and Symbol: Symbolism in Prehistoric Religions mentions the following:

“..the Sumero-Akkadian Lamassu and Lamashtu. J. Przyluski points out in a study on the Great Goddess that this deity was pictured as bestowing prosperity on the one hand and misfortune on the other, that she symbolized life..”

Here we see that Warlock Asylum’s was correct in associating Lamashtu as his personal Watcher, which was mentioned in this article Additionally, we have other information concerning Lamassu spirits in the book Faiths of ManVolume 2, written by James Forlong, page 439, we read:

“Lamia. Lamma. Akkadian : lamma ” strong,” ” giant ” :otherwise called An-dan ” strong god.” In Assyrian the larama becomes larruissu. The word appears to be the Chinese lang ” strong ” ;and the lung is the dragon who represents the refreshing wind. From this source perhaps came the name of the Lamia among the

Within the history of Lamia, we see how this deity, once greatly revered became more of a minor deity, or Lamassu, as new invaders entered ancient Mesopotamia her name and placement was changed in the pantheon. Barbara G, Walker makes a similar observation concerning Lamashtu in The Woman’s Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, quoted previously, on page 527:

“Lamia was probably a variant of Babylonian Lamashtu, “Mother of Gods” worshipped at Der as a serpent with a woman’s head.”

Walker states the following on page 904:

“The Akkadian Goddess NINHURSAG, “She Who Gives Life to the Dead,” was also called “Mistress of Serpents” as yet another form of Kadru or Kadi. Babylon’s version of her made her a dark twin of the Heaven-goddess Ishtar, calling her Lamia or Lamashtu,..Cylinder seals show her squatting, Kali-like, over her mate, the god Pazuzu, he of the serpent penis. As another Lord of Death, he gave himself up to be devoured by the Goddess.”

Walker’s observations help us to understand this progression from Lamashtu to Lamia to Lamassu. We often find out the Sedu and Lamassu spirits are what the Simon Necronomicon mentions when the text calls for ones own god and goddess to be invoked. Hor example, in the Book of Calling we read:

“The Place of Calling shall be high in the Mountains, most preferably; or near the Sea; or in some secluded area far from the thoughts of Man; or in the desert; or atop an ancient temple. And it shall be clean, and free from the unwanted. Thus, the Place, once chosen, shall be purified by supplications to thine particular God and Goddess, and by burning offerings of pine and cedar.”

In the book, Semitic Magic, cited earlier, we read the following on page 47, in reference to the sedu and lamassu, we read:

It is more likely, if we are to see any reference to ‘guardian angels’ in Assyrian literature, that we shall find it in the phrase “his god and his goddess.”

Angels Redux by Joseph M. Felser, Ph.D., which can be accessed online at the following link,, state the following:

“In his classic study of this period, Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization (1964), Professor A. Leo Oppenheim of The University of Chicago describes the lamassu as, roughly, a guardian angel who is charged with protecting his or her ward within the constraints dictated by an impersonal structure, a fixed, deterministic cosmic order, which is to say, Fate (istaru). The lamassu was thus associated with the individual’s simtu, the latter being the term used to denote one’s individual share of fortune and misfortune. Thus, notes Oppenheim, “It is in the nature of the simtu, the individual ‘share,’ that its realization is a necessity, not a possibility.”3 In other words, the lamassu was essentially conceived of as the administrator of one’s personal destiny. “

Some practitioners of the Necronomicon Tradition have likened to the Watcher with the kundalini. Interestingly, The Purple Book Lilinah’s Introduction to Magic Focus on the Ancient Near and Middle East, which can be accessed at this website, mentions the following:

In Mesopotamian belief, one was also accompanied by a group of Good Guardian Spirits and personal souls.

The ilu  masculine, is one’s personal god, who imparts luck and good fortune, and seems to be the divine element within one, one’s own god-self.

The ishtaru feminine, is one’s personal goddess. She determines one’s lot in life, including one’s talents and powers, the length of one’s days, and the events occurring in them. She seems to be one’s personality as an endowment and one’s death as a fulfillment, especially one’s natural death. Scholars sometimes translate this as “fate” or “destiny.”

The shedu  masculine, is one’s protective spirit, who is connected with the spirits of the dead, that is, one’s ancestors. This spirit represents the vitality of the individual, one’s sexual potency and elan vital.

The lamassu  feminine, is essentially one’s guardian angel. She determines the essential aspects of an individual, one’s distinctively individual characteristics. She seems to represent one’s external soul manifested in the likeness of the individual. ”

The information cited above compares greatly with what is mentioned concerning the Watcher in the Simon Necronomicon:

“And the Watcher appears sometimes as a great and fierce Dog, who prowls about the Gate or the Circle, frightening away the idimmu who forever lurk about the barriers, waiting for sacrifice. And the Watcher aloft the Sword of Flames, and even the Elder Gods are awed thereby. And sometimes the Watcher appears as a Man in A long Robe, shaven, with eyes that never lose their stare. And the Lord of the Watchers dwells, it is said, among the Wastes of the IGIGI, and only Watches and never raises the Sword or fights the idimmi, save when the Covenant is invoked by none less than the Elder Gods in their Council, like unto the Seven Glorious APHKHALLU.

Concerning many of the Pratitioners of the Necronomicon Tradition who often compare the Watcher to the kundalini force, we find in The Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, page 163:

“bastu had an original meaning “sexual power” and that it was part of a more … bastu is mentioned several times in connection with the protective spirits Shedu and Lamassu”

I also found out some very interesting information that I felt called to share in this discussion. The Simon Necronomicon mentions the following concerning the Watcher:

And sometimes the Watcher appears as the Enemy, ready to devour the Priest who has erred in the incantations, or omitted the sacrifice, or acted in defiance of the Covenant, for which acts the very Elder Gods cannot forbid that silent Race from exacting its toll. And it is said that some of that Race lie waiting for the Ancient Ones to once more rule the Cosmos, that they may be given the right hand of honour, and that such as these are lawless. This is what is said.”

I recently discovered that once one engages in intercourse with the netherworld, they are bonded there. Klaas Spronk in the book Beatific Afterlife in Ancient Israel and in the Ancient Near East, mentions this on page 100:

“And once a heavenly god is associated with the netherworld, e.g. by sexual intercourse with a chthonic deity as in the case of Nergal and Ereshkigal, he has to remain there forever. “

Spronk’s work also mentions that while these heavenly gods may return to the upper heavens, they must return to the netherworld if they have become bonded sexually with one of the chthonic deities therein. Spronl also makes it a point to mention the lamassu and sedu spirits as those of the netherworld.



3 thoughts on “Did The Ancient Mesopotamians Invoke A Watcher Like Practitioners of the Simon Necronomicon Do Today? (Question from our Readers)

  1. David Smith says:

    Excellent post. It adds a lot of insight and realness to what is writen in the simon Necronomicon.

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