ancient culture

Special Announcement: Historical Evidence That Lovecraft’s Cthulhu Was An Actual Mesopotamian Deity

Priestess Azura Makes Necronomicon History With A Historical Discovery

Greetings! I would like to welcome everyone to the Simon Necronomicon’s Info Page. Today, we have a special announcement to make. Over the past few decades there has been a lot of controversy surrounding the term “kutulu” and its association with “cthulhu” from Lovecraft’s Mythos. Before we begin I must acknowledge that we have a new member on our administration team, Necronomicon Priestess Azura, who discovered this information while we were doing some research. Today, will provide historical proof that both the terms, Cthulhu and Kutulu, are relative to each other and derive from the same ancient Mesopotamian root word. In the Simon Necronomicon’s Introduction, under the section entitled; SUMERIA, we find:

“The Underworld in ancient Sumer was known by many names, among them ABSU or “Abyss”, sometimes as Nar Mattaru, the great Underworld Ocean, and also as Cutha or KUTU as it is called in the Enuma Elish (the Creation Epic of the Sumerians). The phonetic similarity between Cutha and KUTU and Chthonic, as well as Cthulhu, is striking. Judging by a Sumerian grammar at hand, the word KUTULU or Cuthalu (Lovecraft’s’s Cthulhu Sumerianised) would mean “The Man of KUTU (Cutha); the Man of the Underworld; Satan or Shaitan, as he is known to the Yezidis (whom Crowley considered to be the remnants of the Sumerian Tradition). The list of similarities, both between Lovecraft’s creations and the Sumerian gods, as well as between Lovecraft’s mythos and Crowley’s magick, can go on nearly indefinitely, and in depth, for which there is no space here at present.”

From the the information cited above, we can see that Simon associated Kutulu with the Absu, or the Abyss, as he was said to be “the Man of the Underworld.” This information was covered in the Atlantean Necronomicon. However, the origin of the term was ascribed to a Chinese word, as presenteed in the Atlantean Necronomicon, which an excerpt from this article can be viewed at the following link;

The term KUTULU is an ancient Chinese term.  Studies in Turkic and Mongolic Linguistics by Gerard Clauson, states the following on page 88:

“for example, kutlug was transcribed ku-tu-lu, not ku-lu, even though the “Ancient Chinese” pronunciation of ku was kuat.”

The term kutlug, mentioned above, is a reference to the general Kutluk, an influence force under the Uyghur Empire, and founder of the Ediz Dynasty. The term Kutluk is associated with the phrase, Ai tengride ülüg bulmïsh alp kutluk ulugh bilge, (“Greatly born in moon heaven, victorious, glorious, great and wise”), which is the meaning of the word KUTULU, or as the ancient Chinese translate, ku-tu-lu.”

Before we continue on into this subject it is important for us to a a look at how “cthulhu” was depicted in Lovecraftian Mythology:

Detailed information about Cthulhu can be found in Lovecraft’s tale “The Call of Cthulhu.” It is in this myth, created in the mind of H.P. Lovecraft, that Cthulhu is described as “dead but dreaming” in the city of R’lyeh. Lovecraft’s Call of Cthulhu describes the entity as having attributes similar to a dragon. Notice what is mentioned in the Mythos:

“Above these apparent hieroglyphics was a figure of evident pictorial intent, though its impressionistic execution forbade a very clear idea of its nature. It seemed to be a sort of monster, or symbol representing a monster, of a form which only a diseased fancy could conceive. If I say that my somewhat extravagant imagination yielded simultaneous pictures of an octopus, a dragon, and a human caricature, I shall not be unfaithful to the spirit of the thing. A pulpy, tentacled head surmounted a grotesque and scaly body with rudimentary wings; but it was the general outline of the whole which made it most shockingly frightful. Behind the figure was a vague suggestions of a Cyclopean architectural background.”

The myth: continues:

“In the elder time chosen men had talked with the entombed Old Ones in dreams, but then something happened. The great stone city R’lyeh, with its monoliths and sepulchres, had sunk beneath the waves; and the deep waters, full of the one primal mystery through which not even thought can pass, had cut off the spectral intercourse. But memory never died, and the high-priests said that the city would rise again when the stars were right. Then came out of the earth the black spirits of earth, mouldy and shadowy, and full of dim rumours picked up in caverns beneath forgotten sea-bottoms. But of them old Castro dared not speak much. He cut himself off hurriedly, and no amount of persuasion or subtlety could elicit more in this direction. The size of the Old Ones, too, he curiously declined to mention. Of the cult, he said that he thought the centre lay amid the pathless desert of Arabia, where Irem, the City of Pillars, dreams hidden and untouched. It was not allied to the European witch-cult, and was virtually unknown beyond its members. No book had ever really hinted of it, though the deathless Chinamen said that there were double meanings in the Necronomicon of the mad Arab Abdul Alhazred which the initiated might read as they chose, especially the much-discussed couplet”

Similar to Simon’s definition of Kutulu, Lovecraft’s Cthulhu was contained in an Abyss of sorts, buried beneath the sea:

“They worshipped, so they said, the Great Old Ones who lived ages before there were any men, and who came to the young world out of the sky. Those Old Ones were gone now, inside the earth and under the sea; but their dead bodies had told their secrets in dreams to the first men, who formed a cult which had never died. This was that cult, and the prisoners said it had always existed and always would exist, hidden in distant wastes and dark places all over the world until the time when the great priest Cthulhu, from his dark house in the mighty city of R’lyeh under the waters, should rise and bring the earth again beneath his sway. Some day he would call, when the stars were ready, and the secret cult would always be waiting to liberate him.”

We see that both Lovecraft and Simon associated Cthulhu, or Kutulu, with the watery Abyss, or Absu.  Interestingly, both Lovecraft and Simon, described, Cthulhu, or Kutulu, as communicating with their followers, many times half-human, in dreams.  When the Simon Necronomicon was first published, its editors received heavy cticism for using the term Kutulu and associating it with Lovecraft’s Cthulhu, as well as, linking this term with ancient Mesopotamian spiritual practices. This criticism soon spread rapidly across the internet, and many occult organizations, both RHP and LHP, adopted this philosophy as their own while claiming to be guided by some extraterrestrial force (divine).  What is amazing about all of this, is that the term Kutulu was rejected by even those who advertised themselves as being authorities, or practitioners of ancient Mesopotamian spirituality.  Now before we continue further into this discussion, I must state clearly that none of the prior statements made here are directed towards  Lovecraftian scholar Dan Harms. Although, Dan Harms and myself have had several debates over subjects such as these, his writing are actually an essential part of the Necronomicon Tradition because even in his critique of the Simon Necronomicon, he gives the reader certain insights and definitions of the tome that can only be found through exhaustive efforts of research,  His definition of the herb Olierborus in the Necronomicon Files is one example of this. Harms doesn’t put himself out there as an occultist, for reasons that is nobody else’s business, but his own. However, there are many internet-magicians whose insights come NOT from a supernatural influence, but comparing one person’s presentation with that of another, and the result of this comes down to nothing more that “voting” on whose opinion best serves the needs of the occultist’s agenda. Here it is that Gonce and Harms publish one book, the Necronomicon Files, and every occult organization, magical expert, and etc, took their thesis as fact. The problem that I have with this is that occultists are supposed to separate the “wheat from the chaff.” Instead of proceeding with their own research the majority of these armchair occultists simply took the thesis presented by Harms as an actual fact and never researched these things for themselves. They failed to see a valuable treasure that was right under their eyelids due to their own ignorance, and based on that ignorance, which was really an excuse for their lack of research, they deemed the greatest tome of the century as nothing more than folly. For our readers who are versed in occult history, it is commonly known that any individual or group that is in touch with a supernatural source, will be ridiculed at the time of its inception. This was the same experience with the Freemasons, Knights Templar, The Assasins, Ninjas, and etc.  Meanwhile, when the true source of inspiration that motivated these groups is gone, which is indicated by their acceptance into mainstream society, is when the monkeys want to join the bandwagon Forget about the idea of Left-Hand-Path unity. It is already unified by those who are working in the shadows. Ideas of unifying this path are proposed  by those who are stand outside the Tradition. Some fear that maybe there may be some form of government infiltration or what have you, in some ways I am all for it because many of these so-called organizations are not favorable to religious freedom in itself. If these individuals, or groups were to ever establish themselves as the ruling class, they would persecute all those who stand outside their occult systems, which are really nothing more than belief systems, rather than allowing people the freedom to exercise their spirituality in their own way. I have friends from all different walks of life, many of these are followers of the Abrahamic faiths, and while I may write about the origins of these groups and their foundations as coming from older traditions, everyone has a right to believe in what they want. Christianity may have been the redeemer for someone who was living a fatal lifestyle. Maybe it helped them end their drug habit or what have you. What it all boils down to is one thing, and that is that all these belief and esoteric systems are nothing more than asthetics that were placed upon a particular group of exercises that are useful in transforming our inner being, but when people get stuck on the asthetics itself, divisions occur. I personally found the Necronomicon Tradition to be unique. The practices stems from practices developed by one of the most ancient civilizations in world history. The energies of the tome have nothing to do with religions that are associated with the Judeo-Christian paradigm. It is not a “Satanic” path because Satan is a deity in the Christian paradigm. Initiates of the Necronomicon Tradition do not believe that the Simon Necronomicon is an all in all, even the Mad Arab wrote:

“…And if I do not finish this task, take what is here and discover the rest,..”

All this being said, let us continue into our discussion. The terms Cthulhu and Kutulu derives ultimately from the Mesopotamian entity called “Kullulu.” Symbol Dictionary.Net, which can be accessed at the following website states:

“This figure was known to the Assyrians as Kullulû, meaning “fish man.” The kullulu was a guardian figure, a dweller of the sacred Absu, the watery underground domain of the God Ea. Figures of the fish-man were often concealed in the construction of buildings to serve as protective charms. ..From about the fourth century, the figure was associated (probably erroneously) with the god Dagan (meaning “grain”), most commonly known by his Hebrew name, Dagon. Dagan was a vegetation god, the father of the god Baal, the mythological creator of the plow. Dagon is mentioned several times in the Hebrew scriptures, where he is associated with the Philistines. It is to Dagon’s temple that the Ark of the Covenant is taken after being captured from the Hebrews; the next morning, they discover the statue of the god lying on the floor, sans head and hands.”

Earlier we discussed that both Lovecraft and Simon defined Cthulhu and Kutulu as dwelling beneath the waters, an abyss of sorts. Here we see that both the pronunciation and the definition of the term Kullulu resemble too closely the pronunciation and definition that Lovecraft and Simon described in their writings concerning Cthulhu. What is also interesting about all of this is that Kullulu was later associated with Dagon, which happens to be another character in Lovecraftian fiction. This indicates that Lovecraft was drawing off of ancient Mesopotamian sources when composing some of the characters for his fiction and that the Necronomicon does have a connection with Ancient Sumeria. In view of such, it was sheer brilliance for the editors that took it upon themselves to put all of this together. The term Kutulu was based on the influences of the actual Mesopotamian entity Kullulu and the real “Simon” also known in other writings appearing in the Simon Necronomicon’s Acknowledgements as Mr. X, who is described in later writings, like Dead Names and etc, as Frater X, who guided the project, who is none other than the late great Kenneth Grant, states the following in Outer Gateways:

The word Tutulu, which Crowley forbears to translate in one place, and, in another, renders as “Who (will) Shall Attain”, contains the keys to Space-Time-Spirit-Matter. The twin ‘t’s represent the Double Current, the Taus of the Double Wanded One.10 The three Vaus (as Ayin) represent the qabalistic OOO, Ain Soph Aur, the mathematic cube root of zero algebraically glyphed as 3√0.”

Grant was the guiding force behind the Simon Necronomicon. He recognized the word that Crowley received in his Enochian workings, Tutulu as somehow linked with the keys of Time-Space-Matter, or for those familiar with the language of the ancient Mesopotamia, Enki, Enlil, and Anu, the The Three Great Watchers:

“And this special Conjuration may be made at any time the Priest feels he is in danger, whether his life or his spirit, and the Three Watchers and the One Watcher will rush to his aid.”

Grant continues:

Zaa suggests a connection with the Aeon of Zain and with the Serpent, which, combined with the А.˙.A.˙. further suggests the ‘Star and the Snake’.

Whatever the interpretation of Tutulu, or Kutulu, there can be little doubt that Cthulhu surfaced in the Aeon of Zaa and was ‘heard’ by Crowley two decades before Lovecraft wrote (in 1926) The Call ofCthulhu which was not published until 1928. These considerations do not preclude the possibility of earlier published records of the name, but they do affirm the ‘objectivity’ of the concept and its independence of Lovecraft’s individual subjective range.”

The reader should take not how easily Grant was able to find correspondence not only between the work of Crowley and Lovecraft, but with Enochian Magic. The Simon Necronomicon’s Invocation of the Watcher is equivalent to workings performed by the Cult of LAM. When we look at Grant’s observations, cited above, he not only equates Kutulu with Cthulhu, but also associates it with the Enochian Aethyer ZAA. Let us look at this a little more closely. The Simon Necronomicon associates Kutulu with the following entity:

These incantations are said by the hidden priests and creatures of these powers, defeated by the Elders and the Seven Powers, led by MARDUK, supported by ENKI and the whole Host of IGIGI; defeaters of the Old Serpent, the Ancient Worm, TIAMAT, the ABYSS, also called KUTULU the Corpse-God,…. yet who lies not dead, but dreaming; he whom secret priests, initiated into the Black Rites, whose names are writ forever in the Book of Chaos,..”

From the above passage, we see that Kutulu corresponds to Tiamat. In the Atlantean Necronomicon it was revealed that Kutulu (Tiamat) is the Watcher:

“Simon defines Kutulu in his Introduction to the Simon Necronomicon as ‘the Man of the Underworld.’ We can determine that Kutulu is the spouse of Lamashtu, as she crosses the “river of hell,” (Nar Marratu)to meet him. E.A. Budge, quoted earlier, equates this “river of hell” as Nar Marratu. The CHART OFCOMPARISONS, which appears in the introductory essays of the Simon Necronomicon, equates NarMattaru to the Abyss and Out of Space. This means that Kutulu can also be defined as the Man of Nar Mattaru.

While the Simon Necromicon mentions Nar Mattaru in various parts of the text, there are two passages specifically that reveal the work of Kutulu in the Necronomicon Tradition. Both of these passages can be found in the section entitled, THE CONJURATION OF THE WATCHER:

“And the Lord of the Watchers dwells, it is said, among the Wastes of the IGIGI, and only Watches and never raises the Sword or fights the idimmi, save when the Covenant is invoked by none less than the Elder Gods in their Council, like unto the Seven Glorious APHKHALLU.”

Following this is the INVOCATION OF THE WATCHER where we read:

“Rise up, from the old Abyss of NARR MARRATU!”

Many of the qualities attributed to the Watcher in the Simon Necronomicon are possessed by Kutulu. A few examples of this can be seen in the following passages:

“I conjure Thee by…The Veils of Sunken Varloormi” (taken form the Normal Invocation of The Watcher as found on page 72 of the SN)

 “KUTULU raises his head and stares up through the Veils of sunken Varloormi..,” (taken from the First Testimony of the Mad Arab found on page 15 of the SN)

“the Watcher appears. with eyes that never lose their stare.” (taken from the SN page 70)

“KUTULU raises his head.., up through the Abyss, and fixes his stare upon me” (taken from the SN page 15)

One of the first lines in the Normal Invocation of the Watcher as found on page 72 of the SN is: “I conjur Thee by the Fire of GIRRA”

I deliver you to GIRRA .., Lord of the Flames.., of whom even mighty KUTULU has fear! (taken from page 83 of the MAKLU TEXT as found in the SN)

“And the Watcher sometimes appears..,aloft holding the Sword of Flames, and even the Elder Gods are awed thereby” (Taken from page 70 of the SN)

the corpse KUTULU shakes beneath the Earth, and our Master ENKI is sore afraid.” (taken form page 186 of the SN)

“And the Lord of the Watchers dwells, it is said among the wastes of the IGIGI…” (Taken from page 70 of the SN)

We can safely assume that Kutulu is the Watcher. The Mad Arab states that ‘the Lord of the Watchers dwells in the Wastes of the Igigi. The Igigi are the azonei, also known as the realm of fixed stars. Lovecraft also describes the Old Ones as coming from the regions of Outer Space. The Mad Arab mentions that the Lord of the Watchers “never raises the Sword or fights the idimmi, save when theCovenant is invoked by none less than the Elder Gods in their Council, like unto the Seven Glorious APHKHALLU.”

This simply illustrates that Kutulu is the Watcher, which is also Tiamat, which is the Abyss, or Outer Space. The Lord of the Watchers (ENKI who corresponds to the realms of fixed stars) determines passage between inner and outer space.  Therefore, when we call the Watcher we are calling forces from Outer Space, or forces from Universe B, as in Tiamat. We can know understand why we find the following statements in the Simon Necronomicon’s Introduction :

“The Elder Gods evidently possessed a certain Wisdom that was not held by their Parents, yet their Parents held the Power, the Primal Strength, the First Magick, that the Elder Ones tapped to their own advantage, for they were begotten of Her.”

The Elder Gods performed the same rites when they Walked the Earth that we do today. They drew upon the starry energies that lie in Universe B. Notice what is written in The Book of Calling:

THIS is the Book of the Ceremonies of Calling, handed down since the time the Elder Gods walked the Earth, Conquerors of the Ancient Ones.”

The Elder Gods were able to draw upon the forces of energies that exist in Univeerse B and were able to transform these energies into something useful.

“The Elder Gods evidently possessed a certain Wisdom that was not held by their Parents, yet their Parents held the Power, the Primal Strength, the First Magick, that the Elder Ones tapped to their own advantage, for they were begotten of Her.”

The Elder Gods were able to tap into the primal strength of their parents by the Ceremonies handed down that appear in the Book of Calling. This is a form of technology. Thus the Calling of the Watcher is the Calling of Kutulu, or Tiamat:

“Therefore, the Goddess of the Witches has two distinct forms: the Ancient One, Goddess of the Dragon-like telluric Power which is raised in Magickal rituals, and the Elder Goddess, Defeater of Death, who brings the promise of Resurrection and Rejuvenation to her followers those who must reside for a time after death and between incarnations in what is called the “Summerland”.”

Kenneth Grant observed that Crowley received the name “tutulu,” which he regarded as Cthulhu, Kutulu, while he was in the Aethyer ZAA. The Aethyer of ZAA was described by Asenath Mason in her classic work; Necronomicon Gnosis, page 30:

“While working with the 27th Ae- thyr (ZAA), Crowley encountered the guardian of the Aethyr in the shape of the goddess Hecate,”

Crowley also described this guardian as “An angel in female form with rainbow wings; dress green with silver, flames of many-coloured fire surrounding; crest is a moon, sandals of curved silver.” This seems to conform with the definition of the name of Tiamat, Maiden of Life. Necronomicon Practitioner Rafael Barrio, who teaches Enochian Magic, and was interviewed in the following link, He was kind of us to give us his opinion of ZAA:

“The 27th Aethyr, ZAA, is the Aethyr of solitude and your adventure in being alone. Two things you will notice upon entering ZAA is  its lunar, almost sublime nature, and  the absence of anything except yourself. On the Tree of Life, ZAA is somewhere in and around the region of Netzach and Tiphareth.

Except for a few Angels, the sense of loneliness here can seem oppressive. It can be likened to entering a dark and silent chamber and remaining there for a very long time by yourself. The guide here is the dual aspect the goddess Diana (young, energetic, and attractive) and her alter-ego Hecate (old, selfish, and repulsive). Most people will meet the younger more attractive Diana first. Later, as you become more familiar with this Aethyr, you will meet Hecate and realize that she and Diana are the same guide. You may also come across the Egyptian deities Isis and her sister Nephthys. Isis is warm, loving, and motherly, while Nephthys is cold, stern, and impersonal. 

The loneliness in ZAA is the sense of separation that we all share. You must accept individuality but not loneliness. The terrible sense of loneliness in ZAA is a result of incorrect thinking, for you are never alone. The entire universe and all the beings within it are always a part of yourself. Realizing this element is a great leap in your progress toward divinity and a good preparation for the higher Aethyrs.

ZAA is a region of introspection and is designed to allow you to digest the various experiences of your life. It is also a region of rest, as it is a quiet place and is closely associated with the deep, dreamless sleep state that you enter periodically at night. “

Rafael’s comments and description of the guardian of the 27th Aethyer ZAA is similar to what Simon mentions in his notes:

The guide here is the dual aspect the goddess Diana (young, energetic, and attractive) and her alter-ego Hecate (old, selfish, and repulsive). Most people will meet the younger more attractive Diana first. Later, as you become more familiar with this Aethyr, you will meet Hecate and realize that she and Diana are the same guide.”

“Therefore, the Goddess of the Witches has two distinct forms: the Ancient One, Goddess of the Dragon-like telluric Power which is raised in Magickal rituals, and the Elder Goddess, Defeater of Death, who brings the promise of Resurrection and Rejuvenation to her followers those who must reside for a time after death and between incarnations in what is called the “Summerland”.”

In the deeper teachings of the Necronomicon Tradition the term Azag-Thoth are actually coded references to Enochian workings. Thus, Azag-Thoth derives from the Enochian A-ZAA-TOR.  Now that we have established this let us look further into the kulullu. In the book called Drakonim written by J. G. Westenholz, mentions the following:

The kulullu also lived in the Apsu, the watery region of Enki-Ea, and was one of the twelve creatures which accompanied Marduk. However, according to the Babylonian Creation Story, he was one of the eleven beings born to Tiamat,”

The Simon Necronomicon mentions the following:

“The Watcher comes from a Race different from that of Men and yet different from that of the Gods, and it is said that he was with KINGU and his hordes at the time of the War between the Worlds, but was dissatisfied and did cleave unto the Armies of Lord MARDUK.”

In the Reallexikon der Assyriologie by Erelich Ebeling, states the following:

Like the gods the monsters were immortal, but were not invulnerable, they could be killed. The mythology of captured and killed monsters gains increasing importance from the Gudea onwards…but does not replace the simpler model in which the monsters are servants of the gods.  In practice the tension between the two models did not surface, since both serve equally well to cover the most important applications of monster mythology, apotropaic magic……The application of this mythology to monsters in general , lead to the inclusion of a thoroughly peaceful being like the Kulullu in the list of enemies of Marduk.”

According to the scholarly work of Ebeling, Kulullu fits the paradigm of the Lovecraftian mythos. In ancient Mesopotamia there were so-called “monsters” who battled the gods and were servants of them. We will explore this subject in detail at a future date, but for now Lovecraftian magicians, and scholars alike can know celebrate as we welcome in a new era where now understand that Cthulhu, and Kutulu, is alive and is a historical deity. I would like to thank Priestess Azura for discovering this, as well as, Necronomicon Adept Rafael Barrio for his insights into the matter. Let us conclude with a passage from Lovecraft himself:

No book had ever really hinted of it, though the deathless Chinamen said that there were double meanings in the Necronomicon of the mad Arab Abdul Alhazred which the initiated might read as they chose, especially the much-discussed couplet:..That is not dead which can eternal lie,”






9 replies »

  1. Here’s where we are.

    Right now, you have a website that says this, and no other sources. If you can find more, you’ve still got the question of where he would have run across that information, the vast dissimilarity in appearance, and the fact that Cthulhu isn’t a creature of water and is in fact telepathically blocked by the substance.


  2. Thanks for sharing your thoughts Dan. I think i response to your comment here just wouldn’t suffice. I did come across several other sources in reference to the Kulullu, but the post was long as it is. So I will present these shortly in a second post, before moving on to another subject


  3. Greetings,

    Just a short bit of info:

    KU(6) is the Sumerian determinative sign indicating any type of Fish or aquatic animal or plant, as well as a representation of the under water realm, and associated with the unconscious/sleeping mind where in Enki and Nanna communicate to us via dreams.

    TU is a linking verb meaning ‘that which belongs to’ or ‘is a part of’ and is generally located between two key signs, or as an appended sign.

    LU is the determinative sign used generically for all of Humanity and does not indicate its gender, other signs are used to indicate the genitive case such as EN for male and NIN for female.

    Therefore KU.TU.LU means literally ‘Fish belonging to Man’, or inversely ‘Man of the Fish’, the fish-man being one of the Seven AphKaLu (Great Sage’s) as Oannes in the fragments of Berossus, which is a manifestation of either Enki or his messenger Idimmud.



  4. Thanks for sharing the video with us! You are very talented. I look forward to seeing some of your other work, Stay Blessed!


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