Why Does The Sumerian Goddess Of Beer, Ninkasi, Appear In the Workings of The Simon Necronomicon?
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One of the amazing things about the Simon Necronomicon is its consistency with ancient Mesopotamian history. It’s amazing to see how the Simon Necronomicon is shunned by many who are nursed on theory rather than hard research. Evidence of this is seen in the Sumerian goddess of beer, Ninkasi.
Ninkasi is the daughter of DinGir Enki and her mother was DinGir Ninti, a daughter of Enki and Ninhurag, whose name means Lady of life. Some have erroneously mocked the Simon Necronomicon, often making the claim that if the Sumerian goddess of beer is mentioned in a magical working then that grimoire is not to be taken seriously. However, we will shortly see that the definition often applied to DinGir Ninkasi as the Sumerian goddess of beer is quite misleading and applies to a deeper alchemy. The Simon Necronomicon states the following in the Urilia Text:
“When the Fire is built and conjured, then mayest thou raise thine Dagger, summoning the assistance of NINKHARSAG, Queen of the Demons, and NINKASZI, the Horned Queen, and NINNGHIZHIDDA, the Queen of the Magick Wand, after their manner and form.”
The Mad Arab describes DinGir Ninkasi as “the Horned Queen.” This seems to be in agreement with some of the essay presented by scholar Francois Lenormant in his classic work Chaldean Magic. Let us take note to what is mentioned on page 149 of this text:
“Some of the names may be nothing but attributes of divine personages better known under other titles. For instance, we know positively that Nin-ka-si, “the lady of the horned countenance,” was another name of Nana the wife of Ana;..”
From Lenormant’s observation, we find out that DinGir Ninkasi was actually the wife of Anu and that the name “Nin-ka-si” is a title of an existing goddess and not a goddess unto herself. The identity of the Goddess Nana is revealed in Morris Jastrow’s work, entitled Babylonia and Assyria. Published in 1915, the author makes the following observation on page 233:
“The oldest cult of the mother goddess, so far as our material goes, appears indeed to have been in Uruk where she is known as Nana, but we may be quite sure that the cult was never limited to one place. The special place that Nana has in the old Babylonian pantheon is probably due to the peculiar development taken by the chief deity of that centre, Anu, who as we have seen became an abstraction-the god of heaven, presiding over the upper realm of the universe. Her temple at Uruk known as E-anna “the heavenly house” and revealing the association of the goddess with Anu as a solar deity became one of the most famous in the Euphrates Valley….As the mother goddess, Nana or Ishtar is not only a source of fertility displayed by the earth and the kind, gracious mother of mankind, but also the goddess of love-the Aphrodite of Babylonia.”
Here we see that the goddess Nana was associated with Inanna. This would indicate that the title “Ninkasi” was an arrtibute of the goddess Inanna. It should be noted that while Inanna is held in identical association with Ishtar by many today, they are indeed two separate goddesses, but given the same attributes. Interestingly, Wikipedia mentions the following under the subject Inanna:
“Inanna, also spelled Inana (Sumerian DINA NA; Akkadian DINANA ) is the Sumerian goddess of sexual love, fertility, and warfare. Alternative Sumerian names include Innin, Ennin, Ninnin, Ninni, Ninanna, Ninnar, Innina, Ennina, Irnina, Innini, Nana and Nin. These names are commonly derived from an earlier Nin-ana “lady of the sky”, although Gelb (1960) presented the suggestion that the oldest form is Innin (DINNIN) and that Ninni, Nin-anna and Irnina are independent goddesses in origin. Her Akkadian counterpart is Ishtar.”
According to the information cited in this Wikipedia article one of the alternative names for DinGir Inanna is “nana.” However, the article also suggests that many of these titles were independent goddesses that became assimilated into Inanna. This seems to be the case also with the goddess Nana. Esther Jacobson in a work entitled The Deer Goddess in Siberia, states the following on page 218 of this work:
“On the coins of Kushan kings, Nana, a particular version of Anahita, is represented. Nana was a composite nature goddess derived from the Iranian Anahita and the ancient Mesopotamian deity Innana/Ishtar.”
Jacobson’s work informs us that “Nana” did derive from Inanna/Ishtar and the goddess Anahite, sharing qualities of those deities that she derived from. We have covered quite a bit of information. It is now time for us to examine why this title of “Ninkasi” is used in the workings of the Simon Necronomicon?
Published in 1916, The John Hopkins University Circular Volume 35-36, makes the following observation on page 900:
“The visit of Gilgames to Sabitu is in some respects the reflex of the myth of Lugalbanda (whom I would identify with Nimrod) and the wise Ninkasi, goddess of spirituous drinks, whom the Semites called Siris, the spirit of beer, as Prof. haupt has shown.”
Here we see that Ninkasi was also known as Siris. William A. Emboden in a work entitled Narcotic Plants, states:
“In Babylonia, the goddess Siris was the patroness of beer (later to be replaced by Ninkasi).”
Here is shows us that the goddess Siris preceded Ninkasi as the patroness of beer. It seems likely that as the patriotic religious systems gained more popularity, many goddesses were merged into others, appearing fewer over time. The title “Ninkasi” was transferred over to Inanna and the original goddess of beer, Siris, became known as either the daughter/sister, or brother, of the goddess Ninkasi. This is covered by Bob Abel in the Book of Beer where it mentions the following:
“… the older neighbor of the more famous temple of Ur. On the distaff side, the goddess Siris was the patron saint, as it were, … as the British say — and replaced by a doubtlessly nubile and more attractive goddess named Ninkasi. …”
Abel’s observation reveals that the goddess Siris was originally revered as “the spirit of beer” long before Ninkasi was attributed with the said title. Interestingly, the goddess Siris was an ancient deity that preceded the Sumero-Akkadian pantheon and was depicted as a bird that breathes fire and water. Additionally, the goddess Siris was the mother of Anzu or Imdugud. Imdugud is the Sumerian name, which is rendered as Pazuzu in Assyrian. Wikipedia article under the title of Siris, mentions:
The fact that the goddess Siris was of an older pantheon and was seen as an evil force is discussed thoroughly in the Atlantean Necronomicon, which examines a quote from the book, Dead Names, written by Simon. On page 208 Simon makes the following comment:
“Grant understands that the practices and beliefs we casually refer to as demonic, or evil, or satanic, actually refers to an ancient religious philosophy that was understood by civilizations that existed before the Flood. The “Hidden God” of the ancients could be said to refer to the Egyptian god Set, the brother and enemy of Osiris, a god generally thought to be evil but who could have just as easily been the god of the land that was defeated. As an old adage tells us, “The demons of today were the gods of yesterday.” Rather than simply state this, however, Grant attempts to prove it, and after having proved it, to describe how to regain contact with these Dark Lords. In Grant’s world, the knowledge of these ancient gods was retained, secretly, by underground groups of magicians and occultists down through the ages and codified in their grimoires and even in their tales of fantasy.”
Finding evidence of this regarding the goddess Siris will explain why her later title, Ninkasi, is mentioned in the Simon Necronomicon. Barbara G. Walker in the book The Crone: Woman of Age, Wisdom, and Power; states on page 101:
“Babylonians said the dome of heaven was the lapis lazuli cauldron of the Fate Goddess Siris, “the wisewoman, the mother,” who mingled the elements for generation and regeneration of living things.”
Walker’s comments make it clear that the goddess Siris was known as the force promoting the “generation of living things.” Robert James Forbes, in the book Studies in Ancient Technology Volume 8, also associates the goddess with generative powers. Page 82 reads:
“Both in Egypt and in Mesopotamia man recognized a goddess protecting the vine: ‘irp.t (1.115.12) and the “mistress of the heavenly tree of Life”, the goddess Siris, living in the Hamrin mountains of north-western Assyria.”
Jennifer Reif and Marline Haleff in the book The Magical Crone, state the following on page 62:
“The Babylonian Goddess Siris, a Goddess of the Stars, had under her command the whole of the blue heavens where she stirred the drink of regeneration. Representations of her cauldron were made out of the blue stone lapis lazuli.”
The information cited above gives us a deeper insight as to the appearance of Ninkasi in the Urilia Text. The Goddess Siris is a starry deity as the workings of the Urilia Text is relevant to the Azonei, and since DinGir Siris is associated with the cauldron, she would encompass the power of the cosmic womb. The cauldron has long been held as a symbol of the womb. Raven Grimassi makes this point in The Witches’ Craft: The Roots of Witchcraft & Magical Transformation, page 107:
“The witch’s cauldron symbolizes the magical womb. In this manner we view the cauldron as a force of germination and transmutation. Every human was once within the womb of his or her own mother, and every ancient was once in the womb of the Great Goddess.”
Here is another important aspect that links our discussion all together, the menstruating goddess, as discussed in the Atlantean Necronomicon is the most primordial form of goddess worship known. During the transition from the mother goddess worship to a male dominated form of spirituality many goddesses were reduced by assimilating their forms into other goddesses. The names of these goddesses became attributes of other female deities. It was the same with the primordial goddess Siris. In a more male-dominated society focus was placed on male potency and not feminine fertility. So the goddess of the womb and regenerative power is reinterpreted as the goddess of grain and beer. In ancient cultures of the Far East, such as Taoism, the sexual force, known as the Jing, is associated with the kidneys. Beer is an ancient cure for kidney stones. The kidneys correspond to the planet Venus, giving the title “Ninkasi” to Inanna/Ishtar the goddess of the said sphere. Ultimately “beer” represents the generative power of life. The Time Falling Bodies take To Light by William Irwin Thompson, makes the following observation on page 172:
“The cutting of the grain in late spring and early summer become a symbol of Dumuzi’s death, but the storing of the grain underground becomes a symbol of his descent into the netherworld. His death helps to ensure the community’s life. Dumuzi’s sister, Geshtinanna, becomes the spirit of the grape, which is harvested in autumn. The grain becomes beer, the grape becomes wine; thus brother and sister become spirits of transformation of nature into culture.”
Readers should note that Geshtinanna is also known as Ninkasi. Published by the University of Pennsylvania in 1915, Publications of the Babylonian Section: Volume 10, page 144 state:
” where Nin–KA–si is identified with the goddess Gastinnam, goddess of the vine. This goddess is probably identical with Gestin, or Gestinanna, sister of Tammuz.”
Ultimately, Ninkasi’s placement in the Urilia Text is consistent with ancient Mesopotamian thought and relevant to the generative powers of the universal mind that is accessed in some of the very same rituals appearing in the Simon Necronomicon. The information cited above indicates that “beer” was a metaphor, and symbolic of the sexual fluids released by man and woman during sexual intercourse. This concludes another chapter in the history of the great Necronomicon Tradition.